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Single-board microcontroller Internal bus making a pcb board

Single-board microcontroller Internal bus making a pcb board

Internal bus

The bus of the early single-board devices, such as the Z80 and 6502, was universally a Von Neumann architecture. Program and data memory were accessed via the same shared bus, even though they were stored in fundamentally different types of memory: ROM for programs and RAM for data. This bus architecture was needed to economise the number of pins needed from the limited 40 available for the processor's ubiquitous dual-in-line IC package.

It was common to offer access to the internal bus through an expansion connector, or at least provide space for a connector to be soldered on. This was a low-cost option and offered the potential for expansion, even if it was rarely used. Typical expansions would be I/O devices or additional memory. It was unusual to add peripheral devices such as tape or disk storage, or a CRT display

Later, when single-chip microcontrollers, such as the 8048, became available, the bus no longer needed to be exposed outside the package, as all necessary memory could be provided within the chip package. This generation of processors used a Harvard architecture with separate program and data buses, both internal to the chip. Many of these processors used a modified Harvard architecture, where some write access was possible to the program data space, thus permitting in-circuit programming. None of these processors required, or supported, a Harvard bus across a single-board microcontroller. When they supported a bus for expansion of peripherals, a dedicated I/O bus, such as I2C, One-wire or various serial buses, was used.



2017 Mobile Phone Pcb Board Circuit Board Soldering By Sunsoartech



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